Bill Shorten plan to redefine marriage: Beware the red herrings!

Open Letter:

From: Richard Chieng,  Friday, 29 May 2015 4:14 PM

Dear friends,

The Labour Party in cohort with the Greens and the Gay lobby groups are trying to tire us out by their deadly persistence to change the definition of marriage in our Constitution. We must not give up in protecting the sanctity of marriage as between a man and a woman. No children of this and future generations should be deprived of the nurture and role model of a father or a mother. My earlier email yesterday has highlighted the slippery slope to a chaotic and dysfunctional society if homosexual marriage is legalised as equal to heterosecual marriage.

The homosexual lobby is actively sending out red herrings, something like, “We will likely not win this round but close”, “We will probably succeed before the end of the year”, “Our support are gaining momentum but we are not quite there yet”. PLEASE DO NOT BE DECEIVED into inaction! So I urge you to write to the MPs quickly – a line or two will do if you are too busy.

I have painstakingly “copy and paste” the email addresses of all MPs onto a list and it’s attached here for you to write to them. Simply copy and paste the list onto the “bcc” of your email in one operation. Together I believe we will make a difference – a BIG DIFFERENCE!

Love God Bless,

P/S Similar urgent appeal below from ACL

Extract from Lyle Shelton, Australian Christian Lobby: “I’m writing to you with a sense of urgency because right now, your voice is needed to help preserve marriage for future generations.

On Tuesday Bill Shorten announced his plan to redefine marriage.

At this stage it looks like debate will begin in the House of Representatives on Monday.

I know that over the years there have been a lot of false starts in the marriage debate.

The other side have chopped and changed many times.

But Bill Shorten and his Shadow Cabinet have decided to push the button on redefining marriage and now we have to act.

I’m asking you to email your local member of parliament today to ask them to vote against this bill.

Marriage is too important for our politicians to try and redefine.

Please take action today.

Related Articles:
“Marriage equality in Australia” Open Letter: to incumbent Local Federal Member
Open Letter: Re strategy to force same-sex “marriage” by Lachlan Dunjey
Letter to Bill Shorten
Do you think Australia’s marriage laws should be changed to allow same-sex marriage?
Bill Shorten plan to redefine marriage: Beware the red herrings!
Email addresses of all Australian MP’s “Say No to Same Sex Marriage!”
Thirty-eight of Australia’s Religious Leaders Call on PM and Parliament to Uphold True Meaning of Marriage
Turning Point: Equal marriage and the Future of the Church

Letter to Bill Shorten

From: Richard Chieng (

To: Bill Shorten

Subject: Private Member’s Bill on Monday which will finally bring about marriage equality in Australia.
 Hi Bill,

Highly disappointed that you have caved in to the pro-homosexual marriage proponents. By saying that under the current law,  the gay relationships are not equal and that their love was less, you have missed the whole point of the opposition to homosexual marriages. In fact your (clever choice of) words is deceiving and misleading and, I think, is simply  to appease the homosexuals.  Marriage since time immemorial is distinct and different in many fundamental aspects from the homosexual marriage, an idea now conceived by  the gays and lesbians in their insatiable search for the elusive homosexual utopia! Their intrusion into the domain of heterosexual marriage is not the end of their pursuit!

Also, the homosexual lobbyists’ equating of opposition to gay marriage to discrimination based on “the colour of our skin, our gender, …. rights for older people and women” is totally inappropriate and illogical.

Gay couples can never be the same as or equal to heterosexual marriage: Gay couples can never breed on their own; they use their sex organs against nature physiologically; their children by adoption or other means can never have the nurture of both a father and a mother, just to name some irrefutable and obvious ones. How can a logical and unfettered mind reasons that gay marriage and heterosexual marriage are equal or the same when you have such fundamental differences?

 Please research on what follows when gay marriage are legalized –

» One example among plenty – Normal students will be taught safe homosexual sex for each different forms of gay sex in schools! Having seen an oversea school list of different gay sex acts and what protection to take for each act, I was shocked that names given to some acts sounded scary to me and I certainly do not want to find out more. Children of our future generations do not need to be taught such garbage!

» The public, including young children and students, are being bombarded openly and by stealth with gay agenda in the form of library books, school curriculum, celebrations, events, print and televised news and, yes, legal actions.

» The slippery slope (to a chaotic & dysfunctional society) will not ceased until our rights of expression in any form against the gay agenda is TOTALLY SILENCED! You ought to watch this video, Bill, on what “gay marriage” is doing in Massachusetts (and other nations where homosexual marriage is legalized).

Still I hope you will lobby against the so called “Marriage Equality”, the term cleverly coined by the homosexuals to send a misleading message to the public!

Kind regards,
Richard Chieng.

Related Articles:
“Marriage equality in Australia” Open Letter: to incumbent Local Federal Member
Open Letter: Re strategy to force same-sex “marriage” by Lachlan Dunjey
Letter to Bill Shorten
Do you think Australia’s marriage laws should be changed to allow same-sex marriage?
Bill Shorten plan to redefine marriage: Beware the red herrings!
Email addresses of all Australian MP’s “Say No to Same Sex Marriage!”
Thirty-eight of Australia’s Religious Leaders Call on PM and Parliament to Uphold True Meaning of Marriage
Turning Point: Equal marriage and the Future of the Church

Andrew Chan and The Meaning of Life

The Meaning of Life is the title of a privately distributed communication from Andrew Chan to the Indonesian Church a few months ago. (Excerpts below retain the original wording.)

Personal Matters

execution-cross-01I have a sense of deep sadness about the world with which God must deal. The case of the recently executed drug smuggler and confessing Christian Andrew Chan is difficult to process with impartiality. With great rarity across the political divide Australia’s parliamentarians are firmly united in condemning as “cruel and unnecessary” and “senseless and futile”(Tony Abbott/Bill Shorten) the killing of two prisoners who by common consensus were reformed and a positive influence on other prisoners.  Was their Australian lawyer correct then to protest, “To execute these prisoners now will not achieve anything.”, or has a deeper divine purpose been at work? Since we worship a predestinating God “who works all things….for good…. according to the purpose of his will” Christians cannot believe in any ultimate uselessness (Rom 8:28 – 29; Eph 1:11). God’s purposes through the execution of Andrew Chan can be discerned in his message distributed amongst the Indonesian churches. The message of our brother his to the Church in the nation of his condemnation also contains a lesson for us. To hear what the Spirit is saying to the Australian Church we must think outside the limits of justice and mercy normally applicable to situations of daily life. We must see through the lens of the cross the eternal purposes of the Father of spirits who in this sort of world must often deal very painfully with those he loves (Heb 12:9).


Various accounts of Chan’s Bible inspired conversion can be found online; but it was hearing the judgement of the death penalty that seems to have opened up something deeper in his heart, “When I got back to my cell, I said, ‘God, I asked you to set me free, not kill me.’ God spoke to me and said, ‘Andrew, I have set you free from the inside out, I have given you life!’ From that moment on I haven’t stopped worshipping Him. I had never sung before, never led worship, until Jesus set me free.” Subsequent to this transformation Chan became the worship leader of the English service in his Bali jail. This spirit of true worship remained upon Chan who led other prisoners in singing “Bless The Lord O My Soul” at the moment of execution. Near the end he testified to one of those he brought to Christ; “Fear not, you can kill the body, but you cannot kill the soul.” Andrew Chan’s spirit has passed into the presence of his Father (Luke 24:46). Despite the wrath Chan’s death has incited amongst us our response should not be measured out in the realms of trade, aid, holidays or defence cooperation but must be about the glory of relationships. Chan’s legacy is about the pure love that remains in a relationship when judgement has been taken away. This is the heart of his letter to the Indonesian Church.

The Message

Chan’s letter, “The Meaning of Life”, has as its foundational text Ephesians 2:10, which speaks of the powerful transition from a lost state of sin and death and judgement to being graciously raised up and seated with Jesus in the heavenly places. Chan no doubt saw this text as a mirror of his own life transformation. Why though is his message to the Church not request for prayer but an exhortation about Christian Unity?

Speaking to believers in the nation who judged him worthy of death Chan links spiritual growth with our unity in Christ; “growth only comes through unity and about being in one”. We can hear him praying that trusting one another means not judging each other and that this is how we mature spiritually. Here are a few other excerpts; “Pray for a revival, pray for a breakthrough….like you never prayed before. Push on and persevere….for me it took a while to build unity in the church here [Kerobokan Prison] now today the church has united into such a way that great love for one another…a community that was once divided, but now we are a community talking with one another, sharing, praying and even playing one own lives in front of each trend.” (John 15:13)…”I became a Christian in prison but the good news cannot be imprisoned but will live within him forever.”

The Spirit revealed to Chan that Jesus didn’t die to save a mob of self interested criminals herded together in a prison against their will, but to create a community held together in the purity of an all forgiving love. Men and women imprisoned for their sins have a great advantage over a respectful society skilled at denying transgression and used to judging each other from a higher moral ground. The walls of Kerobokan Prison are temporary but the walls of self-righteousness will imprison multitudes forever. The Spirit used the unavoidability of his impending judgement to crystallise to Chan that ultimate reality is filled with a single family walking in pure love knowing that through Jesus nothing is beyond forgiveness.

Chan the Martyr

In Greek “martyr” simply means “witness”; only after the New Testament writings did it develop the sense of being killed for one’s testimony. Andrew Chan told one of his Indonesian pastor friends he believed he would die as a seed for revival into an Indonesia that he had come to love deeply. Wherever his testimony has been shared many Indonesian Christians have repented of their anger at foreign criminals and have started to cry out to the Lord for forgiveness….and for unity. Since Andrew Chan continued to the end to testify to Jesus’ great prayer for a family where “the love with which you have loved me may be in them, and I in them.””(John 17:26) he is indeed a martyr of Christ and a martyr of Christ can never die an “unnecessary” death. Jesus repeatedly told his closest followers that as part of the predestinated plan of God he “must” die a cruel and unjust death (Mark 8:31; Luke 24:26; John 3:14; Acts 2:23; 4:28). He knew that in this sort of world such a mode of death was the indispensible way for grace to come beyond judgement. Suffering for the greater glory of God is at the heart of the gospel (Eph 3:13). Anyone who understands this, as Andrew Chan progressively did, will move beyond that self-righteous anger which underlies human judgements against others and into the purity of a love for which Christ prayed and died. This was his message to the Indonesian Church in their anger against people like him, and it his legacy to the Australian Church in its anger against the Indonesian nation.


Andrew Chan is neither an anti-hero slaughtered by an unjust system nor a drug dealer who got his just desserts but someone who in the saving purposes of God was predestined to die. His voice is a prophetic voice from the grave of a man who has now passed beyond completely beyond all human judgements. But in Christ this is true of you and I; ““whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me…does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life.”” (John 5:24). Whilst the death of Andrew Chan and others has laid bare the heart of our nation in a huge cloud of self-righteous judgement a unique opportunity presents itself for the Australian Church (Luke 2:34-35). The Spirit of Jesus who inspired “The Meaning of Life” can inspire us to die to all our petty judgements to enter into the unity of pure love for which Christ died. As it was said long ago, “See how these Christians love one another.” may it now be said of us (John 13:33-34; Tertullian).

What is God offering to Save us from ?

by Rev Gary Green
Four Corner Ministries



What does God offer to save us from? “Eternal Death”

Romans 6:23
For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

John 3:15
That whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.


Therefore, salvation is process of us being delivered from the consequences of sin and receiving the gift of eternal life

GEG-next-label-How do I obtain Salvation


GEG-GFX-article 64h

The consequences of Sin

by Rev Gary Green
Four Corner Ministries



What are the consequences of sin?

(Romans 6: 23) For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

A wage would indicate payment for work, the pay packet being Death (separation from God); this is what we “earn” because of our missing the mark (sin).



Romans 6:23

For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. and

John 3:15
That whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.

Therefore, salvation is process of us being delivered from the consequences of sin and receiving the gift of eternal life


GEG-next-label-What does God offer to save us from


GEG-GFX-article 64h

Who needs to be saved

by Rev Gary Green
Four Corner Ministries



Who needs to be saved from sin’s penalty?

(Romans 3: 23)


Well lets read (Romans 3: 23)

For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.

ALL; does not leave anyone out so we can safely say you and I do.

There are some very clear guidelines within the Old and New Testament. Laying out for mankind the benchmarks (base lines), which mankind should conduct their life by – they are absolutes from God, Boundaries set by God Almighty, to live outside of these is sin, then there is the personal instructions God may give to and individual whilst on the journey of life here on earth, to disregard these would be sin. I.e. missing the mark God has set for you as an individual.

GEG-next-label-The consequences of Sin


GEG-GFX-article 64h

What is Sin

by Rev Gary Green
Four Corner Ministries

The word “sinned” in Romans in the Greek is “hamartano” and is spoken as (ham-ar-tan’-o; perh); meaning to “miss the mark (and so not share in the prize).”
Imagine if you are an archer, you shoot your arrow at the bull’s eye; you either hit it or miss it. Well, that’s what it is to sin, God has set the standard of life which by man can be right with him, and no one has hit the bull’s eye.

There are some very clear guidelines within the Old and New Testament.


Laying out for mankind the benchmarks (base lines)

which mankind should conduct their life by. They are

absolutes from God,

To live outside of these Boundaries set by God

Almighty, is sin!

Then there are the personal instructions God may give

to an individual whilst on the journey of life here on


To disregard these would be sin.

i.e. Missing the mark God has set for you as an individual.

Romans 3:23
For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.


GEG-GFX-article 64h

Different but the same

by Rev Gary Green
Four Corner Ministries

Ephesians 2:8-9

New International Version (NIV)

For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith—and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God— 9 not by works, so that no one can boast.

Editors Notes: 

A small detail we are all the same so it would do us well to put away any self-righteous fingers we may feel tempted to use at others.

Soberly remember your former state before God and also the fact that you’ll surely sin more before you pass through to eternity and will need to draw down on the account of grace deeply many times to come.



more by Gary Green

Making Change

by Charles Slack

You may be surprised to know the Bible is all about what we now call “addiction”. The Bible just has different words for it. “Slavery”, “idolatry”, “transgression”, “trespass” and “sin” are some of the Bible words for behaviour we can’t stop once we start. But with God all things are possible. That includes the complete change in personality required to recover from heavy addictions. The Christian Church got its start when many thousands witnessed such a profound change in Jesus’ followers and were willing to go to great lengths to do likewise. Sometimes He even delivers us without being asked. The Lord surprised Paul (then called “Saul”) with a miracle (Acts 9:3-20) on the road to Damascus which delivered him from his addiction to religious legalism. At this point Paul began to influence others who perceived that huge change in him. This article is about how God can use you to help make a change in others.

Making change

making change

 Addicts of all kinds are notorious for continuing to destroy themselves no matter who tries to help them straighten out. Parents, loved ones, counsellors, psychotherapists, even whole rehabs fail again and again. As I wrote in the previous issue of this magazine, the first half of my life was filled with failure.


Once the Lord had got me clean and sober however, I was more effective than normal folk in influencing other addicts. On hearing of my recovery, people with drug problems would often make a decision to seek a lifestyle change. Normal people, good Christians, could try and try, but they would fail where my story worked to inspire addicts to turn to God and recover – sometimes when least expected. It happened in my own family even before I knew Jesus as my saviour.

I became a Christian late in life, baptised in 1980 at age fifty. Before then, I had just repented of my alcohol and drug use by attending 12-Step meetings. The Lord will honour sincere repentance in anyone, even a loud-mouth atheist like I was. All I did was humble myself, become more open-minded, join with others, and ask sincerely – even though I didn’t yet know exactly Whom I was asking. God then removed my compulsion to drink and use drugs. In 1976, eight months clean and sober, I migrated from the USA to Victoria Australia to work for the State Welfare Department.

Meanwhile throughout the late 1980’s one of my adult offspring was hanging out in a notorious drug district in California with beatnik and hippy artists who had “tuned in, turned on and dropped out”.

I rarely visited the USA and so I was astonished when my offspring phoned Australia to say, “I’ve been clean and sober for two years, attending 12-Step meetings”.

I asked, “Why didn’t you tell me sooner?”

The answer: “You’re such a blab-mouth, Daddy. I didn’t want everyone in America to know. It’s OK to tell your friends in Australia but I’d rather be anonymous around here.”

I got the point but asked, “Why 12 Step programs?”

“I knew they worked. I could tell by your voice over the phone.”

Although I was concerned about my child’s lifestyle, I was living halfway around the world. We communicated briefly by phone – not enough time for me to persuade even if I’d tried.
Could I have been more influential had I been able to interact, discuss, reason, plead, nag or manipulate? Obviously not. I believe a principle was at work.

The ex-factor

Eventually I called it the “ex-factor”: when they believe I’m changing, they begin to change. In telling my family story above, I omitted gender because it doesn’t matter. Likewise, age is not important, nor intelligence, nor even severity of addiction. The ex-factor can influence anyone to change for the better. Notice that belief is necessary.

 Belief in Jesus is required for salvation but mere belief in change can sometimes suffice for abstinence from drugs and alcohol. However, despite the adage, seeing is not necessarily believing: the ex-factor may need to be attested to, highlighted, uplifted, reinforced.

My ex-wife, the children’s mother, played a vital role in this. Although our marriage was destroyed by my drinking and drug abuse, she ultimately forgave me and strongly supported my recovery. Her endorsement gave my story credibility and persuasive power.

My offspring got sober, quit the hippy drug crowd and went to work, quickly rising to become a sales manager and eventually a vice president of a computer company. Then a successful marriage gained me a gorgeous grandchild. Another unbelievable bonus: although that old hippy crowd are mostly dead and gone, one of its leaders got drug-free along with my offspring. Whenever I visit the USA, I take a walk with this amazing artist who is now physically fit, clear-headed and more productive than ever.

Notice that the Lord’s grace extends to those who do not (yet) know Jesus as saviour. Some get healed first and saved second. Others remain dry through repentance alone. In any case, through God’s common grace, they are far better off abstinent from drugs and alcohol.

What you used to be like compared with what you are like now: how much you’ve changed – that’s the vital tactic which always triggers a reaction of some kind, positive or negative, avowed or denied, expressed or repressed. It leaves no one unaffected, and quite often it works!


Don’t get me wrong. Neither you nor I can cause another person to straighten out. No one except Jesus Himself can get an addict off drugs. Only God can make change in another person. However, you and I can facilitate a social situation in which a person may admit to wanting change. We can humble ourselves and gather in a small group. Seeking help is actually a form of prayer.


 A three-role social “triad” is best, consisting of
 a) those with the problem
 b) those that never had the problem
 c) those that formerly had the problem but now do not.

Such a triad is the best way to expose the person with the problem to the ex-factor. The social roles are loaded two to one for change: ex-problem and non-problem outweigh the problem.

 Sometimes the problem person gets upset and walks out, but often the problem person begins to change into an ex-problem person. Whether the triad breaks up or rehabilitates depends on how much the problem person identifies with the ex-problem person and on how strongly the non-problem person supports the ex. 

The Bible teaches[1]Testimony Works – Rev 12:11 APRIL 9, 2012 Link we overcome Satan through the power of our testimony (ex-factor) and the blood of Jesus.

Even a weak ex-factor ruins an addict’s complacency. It can elicit anger, denial and avoidance or even an explosive reaction. Years ago, I knew a strung-out junkie girl who kept telling me how much she loathed Weight-watchers. When asked why, she would not answer coherently. This girl was on mega doses of amphetamines, dangerously thin, irritable, angry and paranoid about the famous slimming program. Eventually I learned that her mother had joined Weight-watchers and was maintaining a healthy body-mass index.

Why was the drug-addict daughter so hateful and obsessed? Her mother had clearly improved. Daughter hated Weight-watchers because it represented major life-change. And it was working for mom! If a mother could lose weight without drugs then a daughter could lose drugs. She couldn’t get it out of her mind.

Unconsciously most addicts want to change. They just want to keep using drugs while they do so. This means the strongest rejection often comes just prior to acceptance. Getting high on any drug depends on continuing to believe there’s no good reason to quit that drug. Losing that belief is the first step in actually quitting. Because quitting is painful, addicts continue to shut out all evidence of the possibility of positive change. However, if A can quit, then maybe B should do likewise. Having become clean, sober, happy, joyous and free, I bring addicts down from their highs just by entering the room. I don’t have to say a word. Sometimes I think my mission in life is bringing addicts down – where the decision to seek help is at least possible.

Lack of the ex-factor explains why so many devoted parents are powerless to help their own children, why they’re helpless to instill common sense in rebellious offspring. The parents are righteous but static – no change. Well intentioned friends can be trustworthy, loving, patient, loyal, peaceful and selfless but because they are perceived as always having been that way, they have zero influence.

1. Ex-sinners have more impact than same-old saints.

2. Never give advice. Pass on what worked for you.

3. I must give God the glory and my spouse the credit. I just take the privilege. (That idea comes from Joyce Meyer on TV.)

4. We will generally fail to influence anyone who can’t see clearly that we ourselves have been influenced.

5. Change is painful and people resist it. People also try to resist perceiving change in others. For this reason the ex-factor sometimes elicits extreme negative reactions.

6. A parent can never direct a wayward son or daughter toward a personality change unless the parent is perceived as having undergone a personality change.

7. The main reason they’re not listening to you is because you have zero ex-factor.

8. You will be convinced of these truths only when you are aware of how I became convinced of them (my ex-factor).

Gang-war cure

Back in the 1960’s, the “delinquency era” before the Beatles, street-gang warfare with knives and zip-guns was Manhattan’s most infamous problem. I was a non-Christian humanist trying to do good works, an academic psychologist with a grant from the Ford Foundation to study teenage crime. My method: pay gang members two-dollars per hour as research subjects to talk into my brand new German-made, reel-to-reel, tape recorder. 

 Because I recorded the boys every day, I was among the first to know that the gang-war fad was fading out. The media were slower to catch on: newspapers and TV kept featuring “delinquency”.

Long after the actual fighting had ceased, books continued to be published, movies filmed, even an opera West Side Story, about teen gang warfare. When the public became satiated, focus shifted from the gangs to the people studying them. I was invited as guest on an all-night radio program.

“Long John” Nebel, the show’s host, had a loyal following listening nightly to discus¬sions of off-beat phenomena (UFOs), odd-ball health procedures (colonic irrigation) and social problems (delinquency). I insisted the gang leaders sit in the studio with me. I didn’t want to talk about them behind their backs. I was positioned at a microphone across from Long John. Big Chino, Angelo and Wilson, sat in respectful silence at the far end of the room. The studio sound-proofing eliminated street noise and seemed to reduce anxiety in the boys.

However, Long John began with agitprop. Introducing me as “a very young ivory tower academic”, he doubted my experience, hence my ability to solve real problems. “What in the world, young Doctor leads you to think you could possess a cure for crime and delinquency? How can you possibly believe you possess solutions to gang war?”

Thank God (in whom I did not yet believe) I made the right reply. I said “No, but they do”. Three Latin teenagers now smiled benignly lifting open arms and harmless hands in gestures of peace and goodwill. This was the ex-factor with a capitol EX. Big Chino, Angelo and Wilson personified the answer to his question. Long John instantly did a “double-take” and spent the rest of the night interviewing the boys with a passion.

The dialogue itself was somewhat disappointing. The boys’ solution was to get-out-of-town to places with swimming pools and dance floors – but even on the radio at that moment, dialogue was not the point. Who the boys were in contrast to what they had been was what mattered. As a result, Long John’s interest in their personal details was insatiable. He interviewed them non-stop throughout the night finishing in the morning with a plea for money for bus rides up-State. I recall he grossed over fifty dollars, a reasonable sum for early hours in the early sixties.


The most powerful ex-factor is changed presence expressed in looks, words and deeds. Sometimes you just know that a person has been transformed. In the radio studio the ex-factor was high enough so that what was said hardly mattered.


So to make change in someone’s life, stop trying to make the change. Instead try prayer behaviour: humbly seek people who have changed and ask them how it happened. Take advice rather than give it. Gather in a triad. Submit to obvious change in your own life. Observe what God does. Give Him thanks.

How do I know all this?

How can I be so sure?

Answer: because of my own personality change, bottom to top, bad to good, tail to head. Before being transformed by Lord Jesus, I was totally powerless to influence anyone. While being changed by Him, I influenced others without knowing. After changing me, He used me to make change in others. That’s the ex-factor. It’s a fact.



1 Testimony Works – Rev 12:11 APRIL 9, 2012 Link